It should be clear by now that geography at university-level is a huge subject, drawing on many other disciplines. Some possible areas of focus have already been mentioned above, including climatology (study of climates), oceanography (ocean systems) and meteorology (atmosphere and weather).
Here are just a few examples of other possible specializations:
Glaciers and glaciations: Geography degrees specializing in glaciers and glaciations, as you’d expect, are the study of glaciers and glacial systems, including effects on land formation and the impact of climate change. You could expect to learn about glacier erosion and deposition, mapping and analysis techniques, and glacial environments and ecosystems – and a field trip to a real-life glacier is also a possibility.
Hydrology: Geography degrees specializing in hydrology are all about water: water quality, movement, transportation, uses and resources. Areas of focus could include agricultural water use, drainage management, hydropower, water supply and sanitation, and flood forecasting and safeguarding.
Political geography: Political geography is the study of relationships between politics and physical spaces. For example, you could examine relationships between physical landforms and state boundaries, analyse government responses to environmental issues, or consider the role of formal and informal country groupings – such as the European Union or ‘the Middle East’.
Cultural geography: Cultural geography rather loosely refers to the study of cultural norms, customs, traditions, changes and clashes. This could have an international focus, looking at the effects of globalization and issues connected to cultural exchange, integration or dominance. Or it may be possible to focus on a particular region, and/or a particular aspect of culture – such as religion, language, sexuality or personal identity.