The University of Cincinnati traces its origins to 1819, the year in which Cincinnati College and the Medical College of Ohio were chartered. In 1870, the City of Cincinnati established the University of Cincinnati, which later absorbed the earlier institutions. In 1906, the University of Cincinnati created the first cooperative education program in the United States through its College of Engineering. For many years, the University of Cincinnati was the second oldest and second largest municipal university in the country. In 1968, UC became a "municipally sponsored, state affiliated" institution, entering a transitional period culminating on July 1, 1977 when UC became one of Ohio's state universities. The University of Cincinnati is classified as a Research Extensive University by the Carnegie Commission, and is ranked as one of Americas Top 25 public research universities.