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How to Study a PhD in Canada

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An increasingly attractive and multicultural study destination, Canada is a great option to consider for your PhD studies, offering a wealth of research opportunities to help you expand your expertise. More than a third of the country’s overall research is conducted at Canadian universities, and this work contributes billions to the country’s economy.

What are the admission requirements?

The requirements to study in Canada at doctorate level vary between universities and courses, but you generally need the following:

  • A master’s degree in a related field, with strong grades and proven research ability and potential.
  • Proof of language ability, depending on whether you study in English or French, if either language is not your first language and you haven’t previously studied in either language. (Some programs in French-speaking Quebec are conducted in both languages).
  • A strong score in a graduate admissions test such as the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) or the Graduate Record Examination (GRE).

In exceptional cases, you may be able to study a PhD with “accelerated admission” – that is, without a master’s degree. In this process, you’ll need to have outstanding grades in the last two years of your bachelor’s degree (a first-class average) and other demonstrations of your high academic potential, such as research publications.

How long are PhDs in Canada?

Most PhDs in Canada take about four to six years to complete.

How do I apply for a PhD in Canada?

Although the admissions process can vary between Canadian universities, you’ll generally need to follow the following steps to apply for a PhD:

1. Decide which PhD course you’d like to apply for, identifying your supervisor and chosen research topic. This may be an advertised, structured PhD in which the scope of the research is already outlined by the university (particularly in the sciences), or alternatively (particularly in arts and humanities) you could suggest and outline your own research project with an open PhD. Once you’ve found a supervisor, some universities may ask for a letter of support from your chosen supervisor to be included in your application documents.

2. If applying for an open PhD, you’ll need to submit a research proposal following the guidelines set by your university and generally outlining what you want to research, and why this is a worthwhile project.

3. Apply online, paying the appropriate application fee and attaching the necessary documents to your application. This could be all or some of the following:

  • Statement of purpose – this should outline your background and academic/professional experience, including any awards, publications or relevant experience you can offer. You should also discuss your career goals and anything else stipulated by the university, keeping to the word limit.
  • Two or three letters of reference (including one from your intended supervisor). Your referees should be academic, where possible.
  • Academic transcripts and degree certificates – Canadian universities may require that your university mails an official transcript, which should be in English or accompanied by a perfectly translated document.
  • Writing sample (most likely for arts and humanities PhDs)
  • Your Curriculum Vitae (CV)
  • Language test results, if needed
  • Portfolio of creative work (if applying for an arts/humanities PhD)

Some Canadian universities may also ask you to attend an admission interview.

4. Once accepted, the next step is to apply for your study permit, which acts as your student visa for your stay. You should also take out health insurance, and check your university’s website for orientation advice.

How much does it cost to study a PhD in Canada?

Tuition fees for a PhD in Canada vary between universities and courses, and will generally be around twice that of fees for Canadian students. An exception to this is the University of Toronto, where most international PhD students will pay the same tuition fees as domestic students, starting from fall 2018.

To give you an example of the cost of a PhD in Canada, the University of British Columbia charges CA$7,641 (~US$5,760) per year for Masters by Research or PhDs, while PhDs are CA$$10,240 (~US$7,700) in years one and two at the University of Manitoba.

What PhD scholarships and other funding opportunities are available?

Thankfully, many PhD scholarships are available to help make studying in Canada more affordable to international students, with many awards based on academic merit. The Canadian government runs a useful website with a search tool to find scholarships based on your country of origin. Other good places to look are the official websites of Canadian universities, which may provide their own scholarships search tool to help you find one relevant to your situation and country of origin.

Some examples of PhD scholarships to study in Canada include:

Teaching/research assistantships

Many students also decide to fund their studies by taking part in a research or teaching assistantship – in these, you can work as a teaching or research assistant in exchange for a stipend and/or have your tuition fully or partially covered.

As a research assistant, you’ll work to help a faculty member (which may be your supervisor) by assisting with data collection, analysis, report writing, lab/office organization and other tasks. As a teaching assistant, you’ll support your department with its undergraduate programs, teaching one or more sections of the course, conducting laboratory sections, holding office hours and grading undergraduate papers. To become a teaching assistant, you’ll need to demonstrate your mastery of the course and ability to effectively facilitate students’ learning.

To apply for a research or teaching assistantship, you’ll need to check the information posted by your university and likely fill in an online application form.   

Can I work in Canada part-time during my studies?

Yes, all full-time students with a valid study permit can work part-time on or off campus for up to 20 hours per week during university semesters and full time during semester breaks. However, some PhD courses may stipulate that you shouldn’t work for more than 10 hours per week during term time – particularly if you’ve been granted funding to study in Canada. It’s also important to consider that your PhD will take up a considerable amount of time and challenging work, so you might prefer to focus entirely on your studies. Also, it’s not advised to rely on part-time work to fund your living expenses. You’ll need a Social Insurance Number to work in Canada.

Can I stay and work in Canada after my PhD?

Yes – if you’d like to stay after graduation to find work in Canada, you can apply for the Post-Graduation Work Permit Program (PGWPP) which allows you to stay and gain valuable work experience for a maximum of three years. And if you’re interested in becoming a permanent resident, this post-graduation work experience helps you to qualify to apply for permanent residency in Canada via Express Entry. Find out more here.

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This article was originally published in April 2017. It was updated in June 2018.

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Sabrina Collier's profile image
Written by Sabrina Collier
The former Assistant Editor of TopUniversities.com, Sabrina wrote and edited articles to guide students from around the world on a wide range of topics. She has a bachelor's degree in English Literature and Creative Writing from Aberystwyth University and grew up in Staffordshire, UK. 

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This is really an informative website, Thank you for sharing. 


I finished my MA in English with Communication Studies (Christ University, Bangalore, India) and I'll be finishing my MPhil from the same university within 4 months. I am looking forward to do my PhD in Philosophy. What would be your suggestions on it and would there be any scholarships for my research work?

Thank you
Zakaria John

I have a Bachelors degree in Computer Science and I want to do MS leadimg to PhD. Is it possible to do PhD this way in Canada (I mean right after BS)? Kindly help m

I want to do phd from canada. I have done my master's in analytical chemistry, looking for scholarships

Hi Nayab, here's a link to our list of scholarships to study in Canada

Hello there,

I am getting my master degree in fluid mechanics but my master program here is course-based which is also called "master of engineering" (not master of science).

My question is can I apply for a doctorate program related to my field of study with a degree of "master of engineering" in Canada generally and or in specific university? or do I have to get a "Msc" ?

I would be really grateful if you answer
Much appreciated.

Hi I've finished my MBA in 2010 and have been working in sales and marketing jobs since then. Planning to pursue PhD in marketing or management side , will you please guide me which are the colleges in Canada and what is the procedure for the same.

Hi mam,
I am from India I have done Bsc agriculture via ICAR and got 84% and MBA in food retail and supply chain and got 73% .After that 27 month of work experience in rural development (watershed department) looking after livelihood policies.i want to do phd in toronto but I am in Delima how can I take admission with scholarship.

Hi Sabrina,
I am from Nepal. I have completed my Masters in Food Microbiology and got a GPA of 3.7. Now, I want to go to Canada for PhD programs. What should I need in the first place to get admission? Do they give any Scholarships?

hi Sabrina, i am from India, i have completed my M.Sc in math and scored 74% and i want to pursue PhD in same field in Canada. please tell , how i can apply, please help i will be very thankful too you

thank you

hi sabrina, i m pakistani and want ty do phd in psychology,,plz give me some references.its hounor for me

Hi miss sabrin, i have completed MSc in maths from india. i intent to pursue my Phd. In same field in Canada. Please help me out regrading the same. How do I get a chance to do my Phd in canada. Can you please help me with few references? your help would be highly obliged.

Thank you.

Hello, I have completed my MSc. In geotechnical engineering in institute of engineering, Nepal, meanwhile working full time collecting an experience of more than 5 years now and I'm interested in studying PhD in University of Toronto in geotechnical engineering or double master in geostructural engineering whichever is acceptable. As I can't afford studying on selfpaying I shall highly appreciate your support to guide me achieve full scholarship in my field with good stipend and environment to work and get PR of Canada.

Hi Sabrina, I have completed my MSc in microbiology from India. I intent to pursue my Phd in the same field in Canada. Please help me out regrading the same. How do I get a chance to do my Phd in canada. Can you please help me with few references?? you help would b highly obliged.

For many years UBC has offered the International Tuition Award (formerly called IPTS) which is a guaranteed funding scheme for international students in research-based programs who do not have any other external financial support. It provides up to $3,200 and hence lowers the international tuition to almost the domestic level. https://www.grad.ubc.ca/awards/international-tuition-award Starting in September 2018 UBC offers guaranteed minimum funding for PhD candidates https://www.grad.ubc.ca/awards/minimum-funding-policy-phd-students

Hi Sabrina, thanks for the informative article on pursuing PhD. I have Masters in structural engineering from India, and I'm looking forward to pursue PhD in Canada. I'm thinking of first getting a PR for Canada through express entry process and then start my PhD program in the university of Waterloo by finding a suitable supervisor. In that way the financial burden would decrease to a great extent. Will this be a good idea.? Waiting for your response.
Thank you.

Hi Sabrina. It's an informative article. I've done M.Phil in English Literature from a Central University in India with first division. I want to pursue Phd from Canada. I've no experience in teaching and also no published work. I want to know whether its a requirement for Phd in Canada to have a published work or to have experience in teaching. In Masters I scored good second division. Am I eligible?
Thank you

Hi Sabika, as far as I'm aware you don't need to have published work or teaching experience to study a PhD in Canada, but you could check with your chosen university's official website to clarify this (and see the full entry requirements). 

Hi. I'm Peyman from Iran. I'm an M.A student in TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language). I'll be very appreciated to tell can I study PhD in Canada in free way. I have a worthy resume in my field.

Hello Mis Sabrina, I'm Rouf ul Rasool & I'm from India. Planning to do PhD in communication systems and Country interested is Canada.
Can I know the list of universities which is offering scholarship for international students and if possible please provide the link for applying the same.

Hello, you can find scholarships to study in Canada here

Hi I am Btech but with 14yrs work experience in telecom ...currently technical trainer 4G 5G ...can I enroll for PHD directly in Canada

I want to study Master of accounting or editing .Do you have a scholarship for me? Please help me..
Thank you very much..

Hi Nadhmi, our list of business scholarships around the world includes options to study accounting.

Hi Sabrina, I'm Rekha & I'm from India. Planning to do PhD in project management and place of preference is Canada.
Can I know the list of universities which is offering scholarship for international students and if possible please provide the link for applying the same.
Thank You.

Pls, does all universities in Canada require ielts for PhD program? I want to Study PhD in Civil engineering. thank you.

Hi Tobi, yes, you'll need to provide proof of your English language proficiency with IELTS or TOEFL.

i want to do PhD in sociology from America please
guide me

hello im dharma i'm planning to do the phd in management can u suggest me how to apply and whats was the process for that . please help me .....

i want to study in phd philosophy.Do you have a scholarship for me?

Hi Anthony, please take a look at our list of scholarships to study in Canada

I want to study in phd in political science.pls help me

i want to study phd in agronomy help me

Hi Sabrina,

Can a International student in US, who finished his masters or working, apply for PhD in Canada? What is the procedure for that?

Hello sabrina ... kindly I completed my master class in finance wih a 84.3/100 grade ... but if i ddnt success with the tofel or the ielts exams , they would accept me in phd class in canadian university with some english intensive courses .
And can you help me in searching for the tight university please .
Thank you for reading and answering


Sabrina HI, Thanks a lot for this platform, I am from RWANDA, now am in CHINA doing my masters studies in AGRICULTURE ENGINEERING, and am in my final year. Any advice on how to continue with PHD in the same major or any related field will be much appreciated. My country of preferences are CANADA, AUSTRALIA or USA. Thanks a lot and GBU

Hello every one
i complete MBA 1.5 year after BBA Hons with good grade, please tell me some there is any chance for me in Ph.D?

Hi, Sabrina.

I am a graduate student from Brazil and I have found some pretty interesting PhD programs in Computer Science in Canada. I have been also reading about funding and scholarship programs and it is not clear to me how affordable this whole experience would be. From what I read the funding values presented on an admission offer fully or partially cover the tuition but not the living costs. Is it expected from the international students to pay for their living costs with their own money during the whole program? Is it possible to afford the living and study costs with only the funding, scholarship and assistantship programs?

Hi there...i have secured 80% in my mtech(master's) can I get scholarship opportunity for Ph.D in Canada?

Hi Mohammed, well done on such a high score! We've listed a range of scholarships to study in Canada here. :)

Hi Sabrina, I am Steffi, I would like to study PHd in Biochemistry in Canada, I have MSC biochemistry, kindly i request your advice on which university offer full scholarship, I am currently based in India.

Hi Sabrina,I am Emmanuel.I would like to study PHD in Accounting/Finance in Canada.I have BCOM-ACCONTING,CPA,PG Certificate Global Management and MBA-Accounts and Finance.I have ten years experience of Financial Management and Control.I kindly request your advise on which university offer full scholarship.I am currently based in Dar es salaam,Tanzania.

If I obtained the Master intructor in English, I will be exempted the proof of language ability or not?
In case, I would like to apply the PhD program at the French language Institution (for example, University of Montreal)? How much is the IELTS Score for the PhD applicant?
Thanks much!

Hi Huong, if you want to study in English and have previously done so for your master's you should be exempted from proving your proficiency. As the Université de Montréal is a francophone institution, you will need to prove your proficiency in French.

how can iwin scholarship

Hi Omer, if you'd like to study in Canada, we've listed a range of scholarships here. :)

How LGBT friendly are Canadian universities? As a gay Muslim male I have some concerns about my safety especially in North America

great management of study