One of the most famous cities in the world and a global capital of culture and business, New York City is also an important hub of higher education. There are over half a million students in NYC, and more than 100 universities and colleges, of which an impressive 13 are included in the latest QS World University Rankings: USA 2021. \r\n\r\nFrom this vast array of options, two universities in New York stand out from the crowd: Columbia University and New York University (NYU). These two universities in New York City are ranked joint seventh and ninth respectively in the 2021 USA rankings, and they also feature in the top 10 in several of the 51 disciplines covered in the QS World University Rankings by Subject. \r\n\r\nBetween them, these two universities have produced a galaxy of famous alumni, from politicians (Barack Obama), business magnates (Warren Buffet) and writers (Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac), to musicians (Lauren Hill), film directors (Martin Scorsese, Woody Allen) and fashion designers (Tom Ford). \r\n\r\nFeel like following in their footsteps? Let’s take a closer look at each university’s strengths. \r\n\r\nChoosing between the two top universities in New York City \r\n\r\nColumbia University, traditionally seen as the academic big shot of the two, is part of the Ivy League group – America’s most historically prestigious and selective institutions. However, far from living in its rival’s shadow, NYU has an identity and appeal all of its own. \r\n\r\nBased in New York’s trendy downtown, and with buildings throughout the city, NYU is a world-class university and boasts one of the world’s most dynamic environments for arts, music and culture. Whereas Columbia offers the relative seclusion of an Ivy League campus experience, NYU places students in the heart of the city. Based in arty Greenwich Village, with no walls or gates, the university is, as it proudly states, “in and of the city”. \r\n\r\nAs you might expect from world-renowned institutions in such a desirable location, admission to either institution is extremely competitive. Few students will be lucky enough to receive an offer from either, let alone both, but if you have good grades and are looking for the most exciting study experience the US has to offer, chances are at least one of these two top universities in New York City will be on your shortlist. \r\n\r\nTo help you decide which might be more suitable for you, here’s a look at how they compare. \r\n\r\n\r\n\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t \r\n\t\t\t \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tColumbia \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tNYU \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tQS World University Rankings: USA 2021 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tRanked seventh in the USA. \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tRanked sixth in the USA for research impact \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tJoint seventh for learning experience \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tJoint 44th for diversity and internationalisation \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tSixth for employability \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tRanked ninth in the USA, 13th for research impact \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tJoint 22nd for learning experience \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tJoint first for diversity and internationalisation \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t10th for employability. \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tSubject strengths, based on the broad subject areas in the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2021 \r\n\r\n\t\t\t \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tRanked 10th in the world for arts \u0026 humanities \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t10th in the world for English language and literature \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t10th for earth and marine sciences \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t10th for social policy and administration \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tJoint 10th for geology \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\tRanked first in the world for philosophy \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t10th in the world for accounting and finance \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t12th for mathematics \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t12th for economics and econometrics \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t12th for social sciences and management \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\t13th for psychology \r\n\t\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tLocation \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tCentral campus located on the upper west side of Manhattan. \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tSix different locations in Manhattan, with a satellite campus in Abu Dhabi. \r\n\r\n\t\t\tCentral campus is in Greenwich Village, lower Manhattan. \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tStudent community \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tApprox. 31,455 students enrolled (as of autumn 2020) \r\n\r\n\t\t\t8,842 undergraduates; 18,272 graduate students; 4068 on continuing education/special programs \r\n\r\n\t\t\tInternational students: 36 percent of total \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tApprox. 58,461 students enrolled (as of 2019) \r\n\r\n\t\t\t26,981 undergraduates; 25,904 graduate and professional students; 5,576 on non-credit programs \r\n\r\n\t\t\tInternational students: 24 percent of total \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tTuition fees \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tFor 2020-2021, undergraduate tuition was US$58,920 per year, plus other mandatory fees. \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tFor 2020-2021, undergraduate tuition was between US$61,671 per year plus other mandatory fees. \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\r\nQS World University Rankings: USA 2021 \r\n\r\nRanked seventh in the US this year, Columbia has been a consistent presence near the top of the world rankings over the past decade. It ranks well across all the indicators, narrowly beating NYU in three categories: research impact, learning experience and employability. \r\n\r\nThese results indicate that academics across a broad range of disciplines have identified Columbia among the world’s top universities in their field of expertise, while employers worldwide regard it as producing some of the world’s most employable graduates. \r\n\r\nDespite trailing a little behind, NYU has nonetheless forged a strong reputation as a world-class institution. It’s ranked ninth in the USA overall, and places first in the diversity and internationalisation indicators. \r\n\r\nThe biggest gap between the two is in the indicator assessing learning experience. Here, Columbia claims a substantial lead. It ranks seventh in the USA to NYU’s joint 22nd. \r\n\r\nSubject strengths \r\n\r\nAnother factor to consider when assessing these two universities is their performance in the latest QS World University Rankings by Subject. A quick glance at the 2019 tables shows that both top universities in New York are best-established in the arts, humanities and social sciences, and both make the global top 10 in several subjects. \r\n\r\nNYU in fact claims first place in philosophy, with its next strongest positions in performing arts (sixth), communications and media studies (seventh) law (eighth), and mathematics (12th). Columbia’s highest places are for anatomy \u0026 physiology (fourth), history (sixth), law (seventh), English literature and language, and earth and marine sciences (both in 10th). \r\n\r\nAs the table below shows, there are some social science subjects, such as economics and law, in which the two are pretty much on a par. In other cases, one or the other has a clear lead – for instance, Columbia ranks much higher for physics, while NYU shines brighter in performing arts. \r\n\r\n\r\n\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tColumbia and NYU in the QS World University Rankings by Subject 2019 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t \r\n\t\t\t \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tColumbia \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tNYU \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tAccounting \u0026 finance \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t12th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t10th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tAnatomy \u0026 physiology \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t4th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tAnthropology \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t12th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t17th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tArchitecture \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 14th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t101-150 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tArt \u0026 design \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 41st \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t45th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tBiological sciences \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t19th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t44th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tBusiness \u0026 management \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t19th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t17th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tChemistry \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 42nd \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t201-250 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tClassics \u0026 ancient history \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t50th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tCommunication \u0026 media studies \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 18th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t7th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tComputer science \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t18th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t21st \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tDentistry \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 41st \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t17th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tDevelopment studies \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t16th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEarth \u0026 marine sciences \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t10th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEconomics \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t11th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t12th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEducation \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t11th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 41st \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEngineering (chemical) \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t53rd \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t251-300 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEngineering (civil) \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t51-100 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEngineering (electrical) \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 49th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t78th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEngineering (mechanical) \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 87th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t151-200 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEnglish language \u0026 literature \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t10th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t15th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tEnvironmental sciences \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t33rd \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t251-300 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tGeology \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 10th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tGeophysics \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t11th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tHistory \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t6th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 30th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tHospitality \u0026 leisure management \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t51-100 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tLaw \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t7th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t8th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tLinguistics \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 97th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t40th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tMaterials science \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 75th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t-- \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tMathematics \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t16th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t12th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tMedicine \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t13th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 33rd \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tModern languages \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t11th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t17th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tNursing \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 18th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t24th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tPerforming arts \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 22nd \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t6th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tPharmacy \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 47th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 82nd \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tPhilosophy \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t25th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t1st \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tPhysics \u0026 astronomy \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 18th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoin 108th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tPolitics \u0026 international studies \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t13th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 14th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tPsychology \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t12th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t13th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tSocial policy \u0026 administration \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t10th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t46th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tSociology \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t15th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t16th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tStatistics \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tJoint 11th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t51-100 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\tTheology, divinity \u0026 religious studies \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t40th \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\t101-120 \r\n\t\t\t\r\n\t\t\r\n\t\r\n\r\n\r\nLocation \r\n\r\nColumbia offers what might be described as a classic Ivy League campus experience: think stately quadrangles, neoclassical columns and immaculately maintained lawns. \r\n\r\nHowever, unlike other Ivy League institutions such as Princeton or Yale, Columbia is an island of calm in the middle of a bustling metropolis. It may be at the upper western tip of Manhattan, but it’s well within striking distance of all the action. \r\n\r\nNearby Harlem is one of the city’s most culturally diverse and dynamic neighbourhoods Also in close proximity are Central Park and the Hudson River, offering some picturesque respite from New York’s famous urban jungle. \r\n\r\nWhile for many students Columbia will offer the perfect combination of scholarly seclusion and proximity to the action, NYU offers a more immersive urban experience. With locations dotted around the city, the university’s main base is Greenwich Village, an area famous for its arty scene, and in the middle of New York’s cultural and social heart. \r\n\r\nNYU’s central Washington Square location has no walls or gates separating it from the surrounding streets, which are filled with restaurants, bars and cafés. Studying here means you can expect to be at the centre of one of the most culturally dynamic areas in the world. \r\n\r\nNew York itself is consistently ranked within the top 20 of the QS Best Student Cities ranking, with a score of seventh in the student view indicator, which is based on a survey asking students to rate their city on aspects such as affordability, ease of getting around, employment opportunities, arts and culture and more. \r\n\r\nStudent community \r\n\r\nNYU has a significantly larger overall student population than Columbia, particularly when professional courses are included. \r\n\r\nHowever, both are at the larger end of the scale, offering large and diverse student communities – with Columbia offering a more diverse student body compared to NYU (Columbia places 63rd in the world for its percentage of international students whereas NYU ranks 94th). \r\n\r\nAs befits its research-intensive status, Columbia is more heavily geared toward graduate studies, with graduates outnumbering undergraduates by two to one. NYU, by contrast, has more than three times the undergraduate population of Columbia, with a higher proportion of undergraduates than graduate students. \r\n\r\nFees and funding \r\n\r\nLeading US private universities are notoriously expensive, and neither of these two top New York universities is an exception to that rule. At both universities, international students are charged the same overall fees as those from within the US. \r\n\r\nAnnual undergraduate tuition fees (plus other student fees) amount to US$61,671 at NYU for 2020-2021, while the 2020-2021 rate was a total of US$58,920 (including other mandatory fees) at Columbia. At graduate level, fees vary depending on the graduate school and course, but master’s programs are likely to start at around $50,000-52,000 per year at both institutions. \r\n\r\nAt both schools, most students pay for their education through a combination of private savings, loans, scholarships and financial aid. Half of all Columbia students receive aid from the university, with the average amount awarded being $52,073. Similarly, many students at NYU benefit from some form of financial assistance. \r\n\r\nLike all US universities, both institutions provide net price calculators on their websites, which allow prospective students to get an estimate of how much they would be required to pay, and what financial aid they may be eligible for. NYU’s net price calculator can be found here, with a full range of funding options detailed here. Columbia’s net price calculator is here, with information about funding here. \r\n\r\nThis article was originally published in July 2013. It was last updated in May 2021 to include the latest data from the QS World University Rankings and other sources. \r\n\r\nWant more content like this? Register for free site membership to get regular updates and your own personal content feed.