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What Does Brexit Mean for Students?

What Does Brexit Mean for Students? main image

**Updated July 4 2018**

On June 23 2016, a hotly contested debate on the UK’s continued membership of the European Union culminated in a public vote narrowly in favor of the “leave” campaign. The full implications of the referendum remain uncertain.

On February 1 2017, the House of Commons voted overwhelmingly in favour of the government’s Brexit bill authorizing Prime Minister Theresa May to invoke Article 50. On March 29, May triggered Article 50, by signing a letter to the EU which formally starts the two-year negotiating window.

For now, it’s unlikely there will be any significant changes for students or others until March 2019 when the negotiating window draws to a close.

While much remains unclear, what could Brexit mean for students from the EU, UK and elsewhere?

Will tuition fees and financial aid change?

On April 21 2017, the government announced that EU students applying to commence studies at UK universities in autumn 2018 will remain eligible for the same loans and grants as domestic students. The announcement states that these conditions will apply for the entirety of each student’s course, even after the UK leaves the EU. On July 4 2018, the same was confirmed for EU students commencing their studies in autumn 2019. Scotland had previously been the first UK country to confirm the student finance of EU students on February 16.

EU nationals commencing studies in the 2018 academic year will also remain eligible for Research Council studentships. This will apply for the full duration of their course.

In short: for EU students commencing studies in the 2018/19 or 2019/20 academic year, fees and financial aid will remain the same as before the Brexit vote, regardless of when the UK actually leaves the union. It remains to be seen whether there will be any changes in the 2020/21 academic year.

In the longer term, it seems likely that EU students will have to pay the higher fee rates that currently apply to those from outside of the EU. However, those looking on the brighter side have pointed out that the pound’s fall in value, if sustained, will continue to make studying in the UK more affordable for all international students.

Will EU students need to apply for student visas?

With immigration controls so central to the Brexit debate, it is likely that new regulations will be introduced. If the UK withdraws from existing agreements on freedom of movement, future EU students may need to apply for a Tier 4 student visa or a short-term study visa in order to study in the UK.

There could also be more widespread changes to the current student visa system, affecting all international students. In October, home secretary Amber Rudd announced several consultations on student visas, in the context of a series of strategies to reduce overall immigration numbers. She outlined a possible two-tier system, in which “tougher rules” would apply to students enrolling in “lower quality courses”. It is not clear how these proposals would be enacted, and they may not be taken forward, having provoked much criticism from across the political spectrum and from the higher education community.

Do British people want fewer international students in the UK?

Overall, the answer to this question seems to be no. In a public poll conducted by Universities UK in October 2016, 75% of those who expressed a view said they would like the number of international students in the UK to stay the same or increase. In addition, only 24% of survey respondents said they view international students as immigrants, suggesting that students are not usually considered part of the ‘problem’ of high immigration levels.

UK universities are certainly united in the aim of continuing to welcome students and researchers from around the world. More than 100 universities and other organizations have so far joined the #WeAreInternational campaign, which aims to ensure Brexit does not result in fewer international students and academics coming to the UK.

Will EU nationals need a visa to work in the UK?

Currently, the most common visas for working in the UK, including Tier 2 (General), require applicants to have a job offer in place before applying for a visa. If this remains the case, life could become more difficult for EU nationals, who currently do not need a visa to seek work in the UK. However, it is possible the UK will reach some form of compromise on the freedom of movement issue, perhaps by introducing a grace period in which graduates and other EU citizens can search for work within the UK.

How will UK students be affected?

When we spoke to students in June 2016, many UK students said they were concerned Brexit would limit their opportunities to study, travel and work elsewhere in the EU. It’s likely that in future, UK students will face higher fees in many European countries, as they will no longer be eligible for domestic rates. They may also need to apply for student visas, and in some cases may have reduced rights to work during and after their studies. British students will also presumably no longer be eligible for funding via the Erasmus exchange program – or not to the current extent – though UK universities will strive to maintain strong exchange partnerships within and beyond Europe.

Will UK research be affected?

Following the referendum result, British researchers voiced concerns about the potential loss in EU funding – which amounts to almost £1 billion annually. There are also concerns about the potential decline in incoming talent; 16% of researchers at British universities currently come from other EU states, and, in a January 2017 survey of over 1,000 lecturers and professors, three-quarters of continental EU academics in the UK said they are more likely to leave the country following the Brexit vote.

Research partnerships between institutions may also decrease, and – if you listen to the most pessimistic predictions – industry investment could fall, while borrowing may become more difficult (and expensive) for universities and the government.

From the more positive side, the strong reputation, facilities and relationships of UK universities will certainly not disappear overnight, and the UK higher education sector is strongly united in its determination to maintain current levels of opportunity for all students and faculty members. No doubt the nation’s universities and students – both domestic and international – will be important voices in the discussions yet to come.

This article was originally published on 29 June 2016. It was most recently updated in July 2018. 

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Written by Laura Bridgestock
The former editor of TopUniversities.com, Laura oversaw the site's editorial content and student forums. She also edited the QS Top Grad School Guide and contributed to market research reports, including 'How Do Students Use Rankings?'

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There are some mistakes in the article. So please review them. First of all, the UK has never joined the Schengen Treaty. The freedom of movement it's one of the freedom market established by the EEC, than EC and now EU treaties. We are basically guaranteed for freedoms of movement...goods, capitals, services, and "workers". Art. 47 TFUE. (http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=457).

The EU has stated that none of them would be left out if the UK would like to trade in the internal EU market. At the moment, we are fully entitled to find work and of course "move before getting a job offer" even in Switzerland and Norway (these two countries are not part of the EU anyway). Of course it's not clear if the UK is going to left the EU. Anyway the article does not depict what is the real image of our European system.

Hey Paolo, I'm a UK student looking to study in Sweden or Denmark, whilst we are still an EU State I am entitled to free university fees though I am concerned as to what I may be expected to pay when we leave, if we leave 2 years after October of this year then that will be 1 month into my second year at university. I understand at this point that very few people know what is likely to happen but I was hoping maybe you could let me know what changes i should expect. As it stands once I am no longer an EU citizen i will pay fees similar to the UK but i will not be eligible for a student loan, this is my issue. Thanks

Hi Louis. Well, If I were you I would join a UK uni for one giant reason. At the moment our degrees are mutually recognized as we have a system of fair credit generally know as "mutual recognition of the country of origin". After Brexit, It would be possible that your degree would not qualify you for certain professions (such as being a doctor, a lawyer an engineer etc). That's the real meaning of BREXIT. A real disaster for both parties. Anyway, wort sort of degree you would like to take?

For the fees, well It rather depends on the agreements. I am looking forward to hearing from you.


Hi Paolo. Thanks for your comments, and apologies for the misleading mention of the Schengen Treaty - we've amended that sentence now. You're right that no one yet knows what will happen, or even if the UK will end up leaving the EU entirely. My personal hope is that very little will change in terms of the ease of movement between the UK and other European nations, but in the wake of the 'leave' vote, it does seem likely that additional controls will be introduced.

Hi Laura. Thank you very much. Anyway, It seems that European would be guaranteed. In the worst cases we need to apply for a Visa, but I am quite sure It would not be happen as the EU is quite determined on keeping the freedom of movement. As I said before, we are entitled to enter even in Swiz and Norway without restrictions. There also need to guarantee the UK students here which are so consistent in number. I bet your article illustrates the worst case. However, it is reasonable!